Islamophobia is the fear of, hatred of, or prejudice against the religion of Islam or Muslims in general,[1][2][3] especially when seen as a geopolitical force or a source of terrorism.[4][5][6]

The scope and precise definition of the term Islamophobia is the subject of debate. Some scholars consider it to be a form of xenophobia or racism, some consider Islamophobia and racism to be closely related or partially overlapping phenomena, while others dispute any relationship; primarily on the grounds that religion is not a race.

The causes of Islamophobia are also the subject of debate, most notably between commentators who have posited an increase in Islamophobia resulting from the September 11 attacks,[7] the rise of the militant group Islamic State, other terror attacks in Europe and the United States by Islamic extremists,[8] those who associated it with the increased presence of Muslims in the United States and in the European Union, and others who view it as a response to the emergence of a global Muslim identity.