Schools of Islamic theology are various Islamic schools and branches in different schools of thought regarding aqidah (creed). According to Muhammad Abu Zahra, Qadariyah, Jahmis, Murji’ah, Muʿtazila, Batiniyya, Ashʿarī, Māturīdī, and Aṯharī are the ancient schools of Islamic theology.


The Meeting of the Theologians by Abd Allah Musawwir, mid-16th century.

The main schism between Sunnī, Shiʿa, and Kharijite branches of Islam was initially more political than theological, but over time theological differences have developed throughout the history of Islam.[1]