As the first social generation to have grown up with access to the Internet and portable digital technology from a young age, members of Generation Z have been dubbed “digital natives“,[4]

[5] even though they are not necessarily digitally literate

.[6] Moreover, the negative effects of screen time are most pronounced on adolescents compared to younger children.

[7] Compared to previous generations, members of Generation Z in some developed nations tend to be well-behaved, abstemious, and risk-averse

.[8] They tend to live more slowly than their predecessors when they were their age,[9

][10] have lower rates of teenage pregnancies, and consume alcohol less often,[11


][12] but not necessarily other psychoactive drugs.[13

[14] Generation Z teenagers are more concerned than older generations with academic performance and job prospects,[8][9] and are better at delaying gratification than their counterparts from the 1960s, despite concerns to the contrary.[15] Sexting among adolescents has grown in prevalence though the consequences of this remain poorly understood.[16] Meanwhile, youth subcultures have been quieter, though they have not necessarily disappeared.[17][18]

Globally, there is evidence that the average age of pubertal onset among girls has decreased considerably compared to the 20th century,[19][20] with implications for their welfare and their future.[19][21][22][23] In addition, adolescents and young adults in Generation Z have higher rates of allergies,[24][25] higher awareness and diagnoses of mental health problems,[8][11][26][27] and are more likely to be sleep-deprived.[5][28][29] In many countries, Gen Z youth is more likely to have diagnosed intellectual disabilities and psychiatric disorders than older generations.