In social identity theory, an implicit bias or implicit stereotype, is the pre-reflective attribution of particular qualities by an individual to a member of some social out group.[1]

Implicit stereotypes are thought to be shaped by experience and based on learned associations between particular qualities and social categories, including race and/or gender.

[2] Individuals’ perceptions and behaviors can be influenced by the implicit stereotypes they hold, even if they are sometimes unaware they hold such stereotypes

.[3] Implicit bias is an aspect of implicit social cognition: the phenomenon that perceptions, attitudes, and stereotypes can operate prior to conscious intention or endorsement

.[4] The existence of implicit bias is supported by a variety of scientific articles in psychological literature.[5] Implicit stereotype was first defined by psychologists Mahzarin Banaji and Anthony Greenwald in 1995.

Explicit stereotypes, by contrast, are consciously endorsed, intentional, and sometimes controllable thoughts and beliefs.[6]

Implicit biases, however, are thought to be the product of associations learned through past experiences.[7] Implicit biases can be activated by the environment and operate prior to a person’s intentional, conscious endorsement.[1] Implicit bias can persist even when an individual rejects the bias explicitly.[1