Emotions convey information both intrapersonally, to oneself, and interpersonally, to others.  

• The social-functionalist theory focuses on the role that emotions play in  

conveying intentionality and future behavior toward others.  

• Emotional intelligence is viewed not just as a single capability, but rather  

as a collection of related skills.  

• Three models of emotional intelligence with corresponding measurements  

have emerged: (a) MSCEIT , (b) R. Bar-On’s Emotional Quotient Inventory  

(EQ-i), and (c) Goleman’s Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI).  

• All three emotional intelligence tests and their developers have shown  

through research and practice that emotional intelligence can be measured  

as an ability (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2004 ), a skill (Bar-On, 1997 ), or  

a competency (Goleman, 1985 ).  

• The link between leadership effectiveness and emotional intelligence has  

become an increasingly focal point for scholars and practitioners in the  

fi eld of management.  

• Since leadership can be defi ned as an emotional relationship of trust, emotional intelligence is clearly a factor in leadership effectiveness.  

• Aptitude in each of the areas of emotional intelligence has been shown to  

contribute to effective leadership, including self-awareness , self-regulation , motivation , empathy , and social skills .  

• Leaders with high levels of emotional intelligence successfully manage  

complex challenges through building trust, self-confi dence and courage,  

understanding the needs of others, communicating openly and directly,  

showing genuine concern for others, and collaborating.  

• Recent empirical studies reveal the contributions of emotional intelligence  

to effective leadership within the fi elds of healthcare, fi nance and banking,  

project supervision, information technology , and change management .