According to (2019), Bakersfield, CA is reported to have 19.2% of people below the poverty line. The California State average is 15.1% (, 2019). This population has been found to have little to no health coverage which causes decreased interactions or visits to healthcare facilities (Joszt, 2020). People below poverty have also been identified “to more likely to have chronic illnesses, and the impact of those illnesses can be more severe” (Joszt, 2020). Of the poverty or low socioeconomic population in Bakersfield, 30.1% of the 19.2% are Black (World Population Review, 2021).

 It is a joke, but also reality, that Blacks tend not to seek healthcare, which is one reason that makes them a vulnerable population. This is because the lack of trust in the healthcare system. In fact, “research has shown that blacks are much less likely to report trust in their physicians and hospitals; thus, are less likely to seek treatment or be compliant with recommended treatment plans” (Armstrong et al., 2007 as cited in Williams, 2017). History and statistics given Blacks reason to not trust. For example, the Tuskegee Experiment. Factual research has shown that “when blacks have the same diseases as their white counterparts, blacks are much more likely died sooner” (Williams, 2017). Poverty levels, lack of trust, and documented evidence makes this population vulnerable. To advocate for this population, I would start by reaching out to them.

 By this, I mean organizing health fairs and/or activities in their communities. From there, I would take time to educate them on wellness, and prevention as well as basic signs and symptoms to look for. With those who I can educate, more specifically I want to give them basic knowledge of navigating the healthcare system and questions to ask. In addition to educating this population, I will seek education from them on what their community needs are. That will help me identify problems and begin assessing. As a nurse leader, I can take my knowledge as well as use my voice and power to initiate policies to protect them. For example, higher levels of “pollution tend to be concentrated in low-income communities and communities of color” (Srebotnjak & Rotkin-Ellman, 2014 as cited in Hewitt​‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‌‌‌‍‍​ & Ross, 2017). Contacting agencies and initiating policies for ways to decrease the pollution could be strategies used to combat such issues. student 2:There are considerable discrepancies in healthcare for vulnerable people in the United States. Vulnerable populations include racial and ethnic minorities, the economically underprivileged, and people with chronic health concerns. Social factors may increase the health and healthcare problems of vulnerable groups. Vulnerable groups have higher risk factors, less access to care, and higher morbidity and mortality rates than the general population (Joszt, 2018). 

Chronic illnesses are more common in low-income people, and the consequences of those illnesses can be more severe. Low-income people include racial and ethnic minorities as well. According to Pamela Riley, MD, MPH, vice president of delivery system reform at The Commonwealth Fund, because they are low-income, they are less likely to have coverage and, as a result, have less involvement with the healthcare system. The homeless population is at an increased risk of adverse health consequences because they may not have a safe place to stay. Homeless people are less likely to have a consistent source of care and are more likely to skip it. Lower-income people are also more likely to have co-occurring conditions, such as depression or substance abuse concerns, and chronic medical conditions like obesity or diabetes (Joszt, 2018). Furthermore, reaching homeless people might be challenging since they often feel stigmatized or unwelcomed (Joszt 2018). As an APRN, I will focus more on providing preventive care to homeless and low-income people. This road will have many more obstacles, including lack of follow-up and lack of compliance with the medication regimen. Getting affordable health insurance for vulnerable populations will be my second goal. The primary care NP and physician workforce supply gap reduces with time, especially in low-income and rural locations. There is a greater demand for primary care clinicians in these locations and more inequities in access to care. 

The expanding number of nurse practitioners (NPs) in these areas is helping to compensate for the lack of physicians, perhaps increasing primary care capacity in underserved areas (Xue et al., 2019). these students are responding to this discussion topic:Select and describe the key characteristics of one vulnerable population from your practice or locale and discuss why this population is considered vulnerable. Include one or two health practices and beliefs of the chosen population that increases the vulnerability of the population. Describe how you, in an advanced nursing role, could be an advocate for this vulnerable population at the local, state o​‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‌‌‌‍‍​r national level.