The introduction should contain:

  • The theoretical description of the research problem and the links to related research.
  • Agreeing and opposing the researcher’s opinion.
  • Explaining the primary purpose of the submitted work.

The main objectives and hypotheses must be defined clearly, and the literature survey or research literature and statistics.

The methodology should explain how to use measurement techniques, applications, devices, mathematical statistics, data collection techniques, samples and their number, experiments, programs used, and other means of preparation. Adherence to scientific writing methods is an essential condition.


This part of the research should present the results of experiments, questionnaires, or other scientific methods in the submitted research/study in tables, graphs, or pictures, with detailed, neutral, and direct statements.

Discussion and Conclusions

Here, the submitted research paper should be discussed from a broader perspective. The results should be compared with the previous essential work on the topic. The researcher should be able to explain and discuss potential accuracy and error. The researcher should also discuss the implications of the results, e.g., how the results might affect possible applications in the future.


This part of the research shows the essential recommendations extracted from this research based on the data and discussions presented previously in the study. Remember the recommendations in the form of points and clear and straightforward language.

Possible applications in the future.


Mention here the Arabic, English, or any foreign references mentioned in-text of the submitted research paper. The references should be ordered in the reference list as they are employed in-text of the submitted research paper. The recommended format is as follows