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Previous research has indicated that individuals who are high in the trait neuroticism are less likely to use self-enhancing humour (e.g., Greven, ChamorroPremuzic, Arteche, & Furnham, 2008; Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, & Weir, 2003). Consistent with previous findings, it was hypothesised using an Australian university student sample, that there would be a positive association between emotional stability and self-enhancing humour style. That is, those who are more neurotic (corresponding to low emotional stability; McCrae & John, 1992) would have a decreased use of self-enhancing humour than those who are higher in emotional stability. In addition, subjective wellbeing and personality traits have been recommended for examination when exploring humour style (Jovanovic, 2011). Self-enhancing humour has also been positively associated to beneficial mental health factors, such as psychological wellbeing, self-esteem, and optimism (e.g., Kazarian & Martin, 2006; Martin et al., 2003). Self-enhancing humour style has been investigated as a mediator, which led to greater social self-esteem and lower levels of depression (Kuiper & McHale, 2009). However, the research in the literature on the potential effects that subjective wellbeing may have on the relationship between humour style and personality trait has been limited or nonexistent. Furthermore, it was also predicted that self-esteem, as an aspect of self-worth, would have a mediation effect on the relationship between emotional stability and self-enhancing humour. Therefore, greater emotional stability would lead to higher self-esteem, which in turn, leads to an increased use of the selfenhancing humour than lower emotional stability. Results To examine the association between emotional stability, self-enhancing humour, and self-esteem; a bivariate correlations analysis was conducted. As Exemplar – Unit Code PSY30008 TP1 2019 This exemplar is to be used as a guide to direct you on your assessment. In order to maintain your academic integrity, you should not copy the exemplar in whole or in part. A high TurnItIn similarity report would lead to a breach of academic misconduct.
THE ROLE OF SELF-ESTEEM 3
presented in Table 1, emotional stability had a significant and positive correlation with self-enhancing humour. According to Pearson (1896; as cited in Francis, 2013), the relationship between emotional stability and self-enhancing humour was weak as it had a correlation coefficient within the weak linear relationship value (r = 0.25 to < 0.45). The correlations also show that the four mediation preconditions have been met (Baron & Kenny, 1986). Firstly, emotional stability (the independent variable) was significantly and positively correlated with self-enhancing humour (the dependent variable). Secondly, emotional stability was significantly and positively correlated with self-esteem (the mediator). Thirdly, self-esteem was significantly and positively correlated with self-enhancing humour. The fourth precondition was conducted using a hierarchical regression analysis.
Table 1. Correlations among variables Variables Self-enhancing Emotional Self-esteem humour Stability Self-enhancing – humour Emotional 0.40*** – Stability Self-esteem 0.41*** 0.45*** – M 36.89 25.96 29.68 SD 7.73 7.19 4.30 Note. *** p < .001, N = 270. To test for a potential mediation effect, a hierarchical regression analysis was performed using self-enhancing humour style as the dependent variable, emotional Exemplar – Unit Code PSY30008 TP1 2019
This exemplar is to be used as a guide to direct you on your assessment. In order to maintain your academic integrity, you should not copy the exemplar in whole or in part. A high TurnItIn similarity report would lead to a breach of academic misconduct.
THE ROLE OF SELF-ESTEEM 4
stability as the independent variable, and self-esteem as the potential mediator. The hierarchical regression analysis is displayed in Table 2. At the first stage of the analysis, emotional stability contributed significantly to the regression, and explained 16.2% of the variation in self-enhancing humour. At the second stage of the analysis, self-esteem was added to test for a potential mediation effect. Self-esteem contributed significantly and was the most important predictor to the model. Emotional stability and self-esteem together explained 23.0% of the variation in self-enhancing humour use, which was an additional 6.8% than what was explained by emotional stability alone in the first analysis. Although, emotional stability remained significant even after self-esteem was added to the model, which indicated a potential direct effect to self-enhancing humour use. The final mediation precondition was met, as the partial correlation for emotional stability was weaker in the second analysis, when self-esteem was added to the model, than in the first analysis. This suggested that the relationship between emotional stability and self-enhancing humour was potentially partially mediated by self-esteem.