The Role of Deliberate Practice   2022 Latest Answers  

A related stream of research paid specifi c attention to persistence in “deliberate  

practice” and its relationship with exceptional performance. Within cognitively  

demanding fi elds, fi ndings show that star performers typically accumulate about 10  

years of intense practice before reaching expert status. Popularized by writer  

Malcolm Gladwell as the 10,000 hour rule, 10 the principle was notably observed by  

Simon and Chase in 1973 regarding chess players that had reached top ranking  

within their fi eld. 11 Similar fi ndings were attained in evaluation of top achievers  

within other domains such as musical composition, musicians, mathematics, writers  

and scientists, diagnosis of X-rays, and medical diagnosis. 12 It is important to clarify, however, that not all hours spent are equal in impact. For instance, in a study of  

musicians it was the number of hours engaged in solitary practice over time, rather  

than total hours devoted to music activities in general, that distinguished the best  

performers from simply good performers and from nonexperts.