The Classical, Behavioral, and Quantitative Perspectives on Management

Use your knowledge of management theory to complete the sentence.

Thinkers such as Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor founded the     , arguing that workers’ social context is important to their productivity.

Indicate the order in which Frederick Taylor’s four basic steps of scientific management should be performed in order to optimize employee productivity.


Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Develop a science for each element of the job to replace old rule-of-thumb methods.





Supervise employees to make sure they follow the prescribed methods for performing their jobs.





Scientifically select employees and then train them to do the job as described.





Continue to plan the work, but use workers to get the work done.





Classical management remains relevant to contemporary managers. In which of the following current situations is the relevance of classical management apparent?


Some companies cross-train employees to ensure that every employee can fulfill every job.

Organizations like Apple, which promote innovation and out-of-the-box thinking, hire employees for their can-do attitude rather than aptitude for specific tasks.

Consulting companies, like IDEO, solve custom problems by providing unique solutions for every client.’s business model emphasizes efficiency.

Choose the best answer for the question posed.

The Hawthorne Studies began with an investigation of the effect of changing the amount of light on workers’ productivity. Which scientist is primarily associated with these experiments?


Elton Mayo

Max Weber

Douglas McGregor

Henri Fayol

Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y model represents the human relations approach to management. For each characteristic, select whether it is consistent with a Theory X or Theory Y approach.


Theory X

Theory Y

People are often underutilized at work.



People are naturally lazy.



People seek responsibility when conditions are favorable.



Please choose the answer that best completes the statement.

As an operations manager, you might use quantitative management techniques to    .

e: All organizations interact with their environment and thus are open systems   .

Disney experienced    with the development of the movie Frozen, because it was able to also use Frozen as a theme at its theme parks and in product merchandising.

Eastman Kodak failed to make adequate adjustments when the digital camera and smartphone market developed. The company fell victim to the process of    .

Imagine you are the manager of a quick-service restaurant that sells sub sandwiches. Using the systems perspective, match each item in the table below with the appropriate system element.



Transformative Process








Vegetable prep