Question one


Reinforcement Theory: is to encourage good behavior and how to influence behavior. The reinforcement theory also focuses on motivating the employees (Dessler, 2016). The reinforcement aims to encourage a behavior, and punishment aims to reduce the behavior. Punishment is referring to an employee breaking the rules and the employee will have consequences like suspending the employee.


Cognitive Theory: motivation seeks to explain the behaviors and the interpretation of how the information is received.


Expectancy Theory: can help to recognize how individual team members make choices about behavior alternatives in the workplace. This information can be used to create motivation for employees (ScienceDirect, 2022). This theory is based on how much value a person places on different motivations and decision of the persons efforts.


Equity theory: focuses on the employee workplace. It is based on the individual that needs to be motivated by fairness. How the employee feels about treatment in the workplace, emotionally motivates, how the employees are rewarded for good performances on a regular basis. The reward should be fair and consistence to all employees (Dessler, 2016). This theory demonstrates motivations when the employee receives fairness and how the employees perceive unfairness.


Goal setting theory is based on the accomplishment of the employer. The theory consists of explicit and clear goals to lead to better performance. The goals should be realistic and challenging, the more challenging the goal is the greater the reward can be (Houston, 2022). Goals needs to be specific in order achieved the goals.


The theory that I believe that is furthermost effective to motivate staff is goal setting theory. The goal setting theory leads to better accomplishment by increasing motivation and determination. It can also increase by improving feedback quality. It is very important for teacher to be provided with feedback, it can motivate the teacher to improve their strategies in the classroom and how to support the students. Providing motivation to the teacher and increase the student academic learning. When the teacher is provided with goals and set goals for their students in can be effective for both teacher and the student




Needs Theory


This theory has the employer focusing on the needs of the employee to give them motivation to do their job duties.


Reinforcement Theory


Reinforcement Theory uses the consequences that follow an employee’s actions. If the employee goes above and beyond in their work duties, their employer will reinforce that behavior by rewarding them with any kind of incentive, such as a cash bonus, a certificate of appreciation, or paid time off.


Cognitive Theory


Cognitive theory is the way that employees receive the company information, such as their policies and procedures. What they think of the information and the way they respond to it.


Expectancy Theory


The expectancy theory suggests that individuals will only be motivated by rewards that they perceive to live up to their expectations.


Equity Theory


Equity Theory is when the employee decides if the efforts that they give to their work are equally compared to the rewards that are given for completed work.


Goal Setting Theory


Goal setting is the simpler theory of how much effort an employee puts forth to reach their goals and then reach more goals.


The Most Effective Theory


When it comes to motivating staff, I believe that the most effective one is the goal setting theory (Dessler, 2020). I have specifically chosen this one because my opinion is that if a person does not set goals for themselves, then they are not self-motivated. Without self-motivation, a person cannot do the things that outside parties are trying to motivate them towards doing. When a person sets goals and are determined to reach those goals within a certain time period, they are trying to better themselves and even professionally develop. They are moving towards their self-actualization (Dezhbankhan et al., 2020)


Question 3


Needs Theory- Training needed to maintain and grow within the company. Its goal is to improve the current performance of workers and to give new employees the skills and Knowledge they need to do the job (Dessler, 2020). The needs theory addresses the current and future needs of the job.


Reinforcement theories- Reinforcement Theory- The trainer provides reinforcement in the form of behavior modeling. Employee models, role play, provide feedback which leads to trainee applying the skills (Dessler, 2020)


Cognitive theories- Cognitive has to do with the mental abilities such as intelligence, and reasoning. Employers determine if the trainee needs are being meet. This is where employer determines if remedial training or accommodation needed due to lack of skills like reading or writing.


Expectancy theory- It shows that trainees need to know that they can succeed in the program and the company values their success. Just like in the classroom, learning must be meaningful, easy to transfer new skill and behavior, descriptive feedback, and opportunities to practice until employee can perform correctly (Dessler, 2020). Zola reports, “individual behaviors can be changed through reinforcement, punishment, and extinction” (Dessler, 2020). This means that the goal of reinforcement is to motivate staff with consequences to deter the unwanted behavior with the reward for wanted behavior. Vroom said, a persons’ expectancy that his or her effort will lead to performance, instrumentality or perceived connection between performance and rewards (Motivation+ (E *I*V) (Dessler, 2020).


Equity Theory- Employees are motivated to maintain a balance between what they perceive as their contributions and their rewards. Equity has to do with how fair the pay rate is in comparison to other companies and other employees with the same duty. (Dessler, 2020)


Goal-Setting Theory- Goal-setting theory is a technique used to increase incentives for employees to complete work effectively. “Research supports predictions that the most effective performance seems to result when goals are specific and challenging, when they are used to evaluate performance and linked to feedback on results and create commitment and acceptance” (Lunenburg, 2011). Goal setting can be individually and in groups. The competition within itself builds motivation in the workplace. There are a variety of ways to implement incentives in the workplace.