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4. Reinforcement Perspectives on Motivation

Management at Work

Hilary works as a receptionist and technician at an animal shelter. Her boss, Edison, believes that smiling at the people who come to the shelter leads to more dogs being adopted. Recently, he has been nagging his employees to smile. Last week, Edison noticed that Hilary smiled and immediately greeted a family who was at the animal shelter looking for a new dog. Edison decides to use either positive reinforcement or avoidance learning to increase Hilary’s behavior. Now Edison is asking for your advice about exactly what to do to use each technique.

If Edison wants to use a positive reinforcement technique, which of the following should Edison do?

 

Pay no attention to Hilary

Stop nagging Hilary.

Give instructions to Hilary.

Give Hilary a bonus.

On the other hand, if Edison wants to use an avoidance learning technique, which of the following should Edison do?

 

Pay no attention to Hilary.

Stop nagging Hilary.

Give Hilary a bonus.

Give instructions to Hilary.

You are trying to convince a group of volunteers to show up at the library for their scheduled hours of work. Unfortunately, people tend to come in late on a regular basis, and this makes it difficult to get the books back on the shelves in a timely manner. You decide to give the volunteers    . Anyone who is on time for 2 weeks gets a $5 gift card from Starbucks. Soon, all of the volunteers are showing up for their shifts right on time.

If a manager uses positive reinforcers, such as money and gift certificates, to shape the behavior of his or her employees, what can the manager then expect? Check all that apply.

 

To see a temporary increase in the rewarded behaviors

To satisfy the employees’ lower-level needs

To see a long-term increase in the rewarded behaviors

To satisfy the employees’ affiliation needs

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