New approaches to citizenship: transcending the nationstate? Introduction to Week 15 The idea that citizenship must relate to a nation-state is a relatively recent phenomenon. In Ancient Greece, notions of citizenship related to an elite, political membership of a city-state surrounded by countryside. In 212 AD Roman citizenship was extended to all free men within the Roman Empire. In feudal times, bonds were between lords and vassals, while the Renaissance saw city-based citizenship emerge in parts of Europe, albeit linked to a man’s economic independence and ability to defend the city. The development of modern citizenship, and the strong connection between the nation-state and citizenship, broadly aligns to the development of the modern state system. However, that connection, which has been called a ‘historical anomaly’ (Maas, 2013, p. 21), has come under challenge from wider social, political and economic developments. The focus of this week will be on flexible and plural ideas of citizenship, including transnational, regional and global forms of citizenship. Such approaches do not necessarily reject the nation-state/citizenship link, but they do provide new ways of thinking about citizenship. Before examining these different approaches to citizenship, it is important to consider why, despite developments such as globalisation and the impact of migration, the nation-state has proved to be so resilient as the focus of citizenship