What are 2 or more theories that are discussed in the Introduction? How are they used to
motivate (or set up) the research question? Do the authors agree or disagree with these
Simply restate the theories discussed in the introduction in your own words. State how
these theories are driving the research questions. If the authors hypothesis is correct,
will it support the theory or be inconsistent with the theory? You should have good idea
of where the authors stand based on the evidence presented and the arguments they are
How is the research question operationalized? First, identify the abstract constructs being
studied. Next identify the concrete way these are being observed or measured. This
should include your IV and DV.