Y​‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‌‌‌‍‍​our exam should be no more than seven (total) doubled-spaced typed pages in font size 12 in Arial or Times New Roman. Those papers typed in font size smaller than 12 will be rejected. The margins should be 1”, 1”, 1’, 1”. Please note the allocation of pages for each question is up to you. For as long as you do not go beyond seven pages you will be OK. You can also have an eighth page for citations only. 

is no minimum number of pages for this assignment. Please note that this assignment must be submitted electronically via “Turnitin.” Please also note that your “Similarity Index” must be 15% or lower. There are two parts to this exam. Please make sure you have answered all the required questions. Part I: 3

. Explain how Malthus and Bolserup see the relationship between food production and population. 

each theory in detail. Did these scholars see the future of society the same way?

 Explain the inequality critique of Malthusianism (in Be​‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‌‌‌‍‍​ll et al. 187) and cite one example from the book about this (Bell et al. pp. 187-204). I expect to see specific citations from lectures and from Bell et al. Part II: You must answer the question below (NO CHOICE) (Graded on an “F” to “A” Scale) 6. You should begin your answer by explaining the difference between fertility and fecundity.

 Then, explain in detail each stage of the demographic transition graph below.

 What are the main factors leading to the changes from one stage to the next (causes), for example, issues affecting birth and death rates? 

What do scholars mean by “development is the best contraceptive?” Is there any evidence for that? 

Explain in detail. Why do some environmentalists argue population decline helps the environment but then add there is also the problem of consumption? 

How does consumption complicate the issue of achieving environmental sustainability?

 Please see slides containing statistics on the consumer class and use them​‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‌‌‌‍‍​ to substantiate your answer