Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in women’s lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.[1] Menopause usually occurs between the age of 48 and 52


.[2] Medical professionals often define menopause as having occurred when a woman has not had any menstrual bleeding for a year

[3] It may also be defined by a decrease in hormone production by the ovaries.[8] In those who have had surgery to remove their uterus but still have ovaries, menopause may be considered to have occurred at the time of the surgery or when their hormone levels fell

.[8] Following the removal of the uterus, symptoms typically occur earlier, at an average of 45 years of age.[9]

In the years before menopause, a woman’s periods typically become irregular,[10]

[11] which means that periods may be longer or shorter in duration or be lighter or heavier in the amount of flow.[10] During this time, women often experience hot flashes; these typically last from 30 seconds to ten minutes and may be associated with shivering, sweating, and reddening of the skin.[10] Hot flashes often stop occurring after a year or two.[7] Other symptoms may include vaginal dryness, trouble sleeping, and mood changes.[10] The severity of symptoms varies between women.[7] While menopause is often thought to be linked to an increase in heart disease, this primarily occurs due to increasing age and does not have a direct relationship with menopause.[7] In some women, problems that were present like endometriosis or painful periods will improve after menopause.[7]

Menopause is usually a natural change.[4] It can occur earlier in those who smoke tobacco.[3

][12] Other causes include surgery that removes both ovaries or some types of chemotherapy.[3] At the physiological level, menopause happens because of a decrease in the ovaries’ production of the hormones estrogen and progesterone.[1] While typically not needed, a diagnosis of menopause can be confirmed by measuring hormone levels in the blood or urine.[13]

 Menopause is the opposite of menarche, the time when a girl’s periods start.[14]

Specific treatment is not usually needed.[5] Some symptoms, however, may be improved with treatment.[5] With respect to hot flashes, avoiding smoking, caffeine, and alcohol is often recommended.[5] Sleeping in a cool room and using a fan may help.[5] The following medications may help: menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), clonidine, gabapentin, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.[5][6] Exercise may help with sleeping problems.[5] While MHT was once routinely prescribed, it is now only recommended in those with significant symptoms, as there are concerns about side effects.[5] High-quality evidence for the effectiveness of alternative medicine has not been found.[7] There is tentative evidence for phytoestrogens.[15]