Introduction Our nation has been a melting pot of cultures since its birth and this multiculturalism is increasing rapidly. This diversity is creating ?a significant challenge for interactions at all levels of society particularly in healthcare. In order to meet this challenge, ?advanced practice nurses we must first understand the concept of culture, as well as health and illness. Culture is defined by Dayer-Berenson, as ?the shared values, traditions, norms, customs, arts, history, folklore, and institutions of a group of people who are unified by race, ethnicity, language, nationality, sexual orientation, and/or religion.?(2014). In order to help our patients connect with their healthcare providers it is vital as advanced practice nurses to provide culturally sensitive and competent care. This will help us identifiy healthcare disparities and their impact on current health care in the United States. Learning objectives for the module: At the end of this module, the student will be able to: Define health and illness Define diversity Identify ways to provide culturally competent care Describe the impact of diversity on healthcare disparities Readings: Andrews & Boyle, J. , Chapters 2, 3 The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services by Campinha-Bacote (2002) Cultural Competence for Healthcare Providers? Websites: The Model of Cultural Competence through Evolutionary Concept Analysis by Suh (2004).? Communication Between Cultures:? ? Topic 1: Health and Illness The concepts of health and illness are not easily defined and are difficult to understand. The World Health organization (WHO) defines health as ?a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease.?? Other definitions include the state of being free from illness or injury, or a general condition of the body or mind in equilibrium. The many definitions of health make it difficult to grasp and understand it?s meaning. The definitions of illness are just as elusive. Is it the absence or opposite of health or is it better defined as a disease or condition?? No matter the definition we need to understand that the experience of being ill is also defined by the patient. ??What health may mean to a 21 year old athlete versus a 60 year old diabetic will vary greatly. Therefore we find individuals defining health and illness according to their own definitions. We also must realize that culture greatly affects one?s definition of health and illness, therefore as advanced practice nurses in order to provide competent care we must understand health and illness from our client?s perspective. ? Topic 2: Cultural Diversity The United States is a multicultural nation made up of cultures from around the world. According to the US Census Bureau, Asian and mixed race people are the two fastest growing populations in the US. Although non-hispanic whiltes remain the largest group of Americans at 198 million, they are the only group with a higher death rate than birth rate. Hispanics follow? the non-hispanic whites at 57.5 million and blacks or African Americans at 46.8 million. With the increase in these diverse populations come issues which tremendously effect their health care. Language barriers and low incomes lead to lower access and availability of health care and therefore less favorable outcomes according to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report (2003). This results in daily challenges for the nurse to identify the diverse needs of the patients and address them in order to provide quality health care. In order to combat these culturally driven healthcare disparities the advanced practice nurse must be prepared to meet the unique healthcare needs for all culturally diverse paients in their care. ? ? Module 3 Discussion Based on the various definitions of health, define health and explain if you agree with one definition more than the other? Why? Post your initial response by Wednesday at midnight. Respond to one student by Sunday at midnight.? Both responses should be a minimum of 150 words, scholarly written, APA formatted, and referenced. ?A minimum of 2 references are required (other than your text) for both posts. ?Refer to the Grading Rubric for Online Discussion in the Course Resource section. Module 3: Discussion Special Guidance on APA formatting in Discussion Posts APA formatting is required in discussion posts with the following two exceptions (due to limitations with the text editor in LIVE): ?double line space and indent 1/2 inch from the left margin. Discussion posts will NOT be evaluated on those two formatting requirements.?All other APA formatting guidelines should be followed. For example,?in-text citations must be formatted with the appropriate information and in the correct sequence (Author, year), reference list entries must include all appropriate information following ?guidelines for capitalization, italics, and be in the correct sequence. Refer to the APA Publication Manual 7th ed. for each source type?s specific requirements. Please let your instructor know if you have any questions. ? Module 3: Discussion ? Must post first. Subscribe Based on the various definitions of health, define health and explain if you agree with one definition more than the other? Why? Post your initial response by Wednesday at midnight. Respond to one student by Sunday at midnight.? Both responses should be a minimum of 150 words, scholarly written, APA formatted, and referenced. ?A minimum of 2 references are required (other than your text) for both posts. ?Refer to the Grading Rubric for Online Discussion in the Course Resource section. Feedback 100 / 100 I think most of us agree that although the WHO definition has been widely accepted we define health differently today because we recognize the need for the individual to define what health means to them.? As an example, a Diabetic who maintains their BS at 140 or below may identify as being healthy.? Good points, thank you. less View Graded Rubric Start a New Thread Discussion Filter by: All Threads Sort by: Most Recent Activity? Least Recent Activity? Newest Thread? Oldest Thread? Author First Name A-Z? Author First Name Z-A? Author Last Name A-Z? Author Last Name Z-A? Subject A-Z? Subject Z-A Module IIISubscribe Evelyn Anderson posted Sep 17, 2021 8:03 AM Contains unread posts Health is a broad term that can have many definitions or viewpoints considering the context of which it is being used. Health can be seen as a physical and mental state of well-being with environmental and sociological elements that can play a role in a persons? health. Also, consideration must be given for how each person views health and what it means to them. Defining health can have an impact on health care professionals and society in how it is socially developed and impacts policy development and implementation in the health care system (Leonardi, 2018). The definition of health can impact a persons behavior and their ability to make decisions regarding their health (Leonardi, 2018). ?Some scholars consider questions of health by asking if health is a complete state of well-being? or is health a resilience to disease and injury and recovery from a specific disease? (Oleribe et al. 2018). The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as a complete state of mental, physical and social well-being (Leonardi, 2018). Scholars contend that it is near impossible for any one person to have complete mental, physical and social well-being (Leonardi, 2018). It doesn?t appear that any one definition of health is the complete answer and the determinants of health is all always changing. Health is a complex state of being with many contributing factors.?References:Leonardi, F. (2018). The definition of health: Towards new perspectives.?International Journal of Health Services, 48 (4), 735-748.? UnreadUnread1 ViewsViews 1 1 1 RepliesReplies 1 View profile card for Jerrica Goins Last post?September 19 at 11:10 PM?by Jerrica Goins Oleribe, O., Ukwedeh, O., Burstow, N., Gomaa, A., Sonderup, M., Cook, N., Waked, I., Spearman, W., & Taylor-Robinson, S. (2018). Health: Redefined. The Pan African Medical Journal, 30, 292-292.? Module 3: DiscussionSubscribed Gisselle Mustiga posted Sep 14, 2021 9:57 PM Contains unread posts Health is a notion that individuals create and relate to culture and social norms that should be defined congruently in natural design, objectives, and facts. The world health organization (WHO) proposes health as the absence of disease or illness and complete physical wellness. The concept of health is complex since when health is taken as a subjective aspect, it creates a notion for judgments and social norms that portray health definition. The former (health based on objectivity, subjectivity, and facts) is more realistic since it governs all aspects than the absence of illness or complete physical wellness (Campinha-Bacote, 2019). The latter is that individuals can have medical or lifestyle conditions and still lead healthy lives.From a patient?s perspective, health-related values involve cultural identity, ethnicity, moral and ethical views, individual preferences, and socioeconomic status (Andrew et al., 2020). Health care providers? and patient?s values are linked through communication. Through communication, the nurses obtain subjective data from the patient, including the past and present state of health and cultural aspects which might interfere with the nurses? ability to make health care decisions (Suh, 2004). Objective data are also taken to assess the patient?s strength and delve into their lifestyles to identify possible risk factors that make an individual susceptible to illnesses.Andrews, M. M., Boyle, J. S., Collins, J. W. (Eds.). (2020).?Transcultural concepts in nursing care?(8th ed.).?Philadelphia, PA:?Wolters Kluwer Health.Suh, E. E. (2004). The model of cultural competence through an evolutionary concept analysis.?Journal of Transcultural Nursing,?15(2), 93-102.less1 UnreadUnread0 ViewsViews 0 1 1 RepliesReplies 1 View profile card for Idida Aleman Musial Last post?September 19 at 10:40 PM?by Idida Aleman Musial Campinha-Bacote, J. (2019). Cultural compatibility: A paradigm shift in the cultural competence versus cultural humility debate?Part I.?Online Journal of Issues in Nursing,?24(1). References Health professionals understand cultural competence and that individual?s health is not separate from social and environmental contexts. They attend to physical, social, and ecological contexts that affect health and understand the difference between health and health aspects. Andrews et al., 2020 transcultural interprofessional practices (TIP) constitute systematic, patient-centered, and logical scientific ways of availing safe, affordable, evidence-based practices for individuals from different diversities. The critical components of the TIP relate to the individual?s context regarding beliefs, attitudes, and health-related values. NSG 556: Module 3Subscribe Jennifer Johnson posted Sep 14, 2021 9:52 PM Contains unread posts Early definitions of health, as understood by the biomedical community, focused solely on the normal functioning of the body, and the absence of disease (Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada, 2016). Currently however, a more recent definition of health from the World Health Organization, broadly encompasses an individual or community?s ability to ?realize aspirations and satisfy needs, and to change or cope with the environment? (World Health Organization, 1984, p. 4). A flushing out of that definition reveals a strong emphasis on health promotion within it. I agree with and appreciate this aspect of health promotion within the definition because we cannot define health for our patients (McCartney et al., 2019). We can?promote?health within our patients; we can educate them, provide treatments and offer recommendations, and we can even prescribe medications and testing to collect objective evidence. But we cannot?provide?health for our patients.? Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada. (2016, August 12).?Concepts of Health and Illness: Definitions of Health.?AFMC Primer on Population Health: A virtual textbook on Public Health concepts for clinicians. Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe. (?1984, September 13)?.?Health promotion : a discussion document on the concept and principles : summary report of the Working Group on Concept and Principles of Health Promotion.?Copenhagen : WHO Regional Office for Europe. UnreadUnread3 ViewsViews 3 2 3 RepliesReplies 3 View profile card for Gisselle Mustiga Last post?September 19 at 10:02 PM?by Gisselle Mustiga McCartney, G., Popham, F., McMaster, R., & Cumbers, A. (2019). Defining health and health inequalities.?Public Health, 172, 22-30. Resources What we can offer is an opportunity for our patients to achieve health within their own environment. Our patients? understanding of health, well-being, illness or disease will vary based on their culture, background and environment (McCartney et al., 2019). The experiences of health between patients can vary as greatly as they differ from each other. For some, living with heart disease and diabetes may be such a challenge that their lives are turned upside down. For others, chronic illness can be easily managed and will not be such a hindrance to their experience of being healthy. Factors such as education, environment, socioeconomic status, cultural background and beliefs, genetic disposition, mental health, and access to care all play a significant and complex role in one?s understanding of health (McCartney et al., 2019). The advanced practice nurse must take these factors into account when assessing a patient?s experience of health. Module 3 DiscussionSubscribe Jerrica Goins posted Sep 15, 2021 11:57 PM Contains unread posts The World Health Organization started defining health in 1948 as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (McCartney et al., 2019). Today, managing disease, not solely its absence, is a means to a healthy life. Many people have a chronic disease that are managed and are considered to be healthy because they have their disease under control. Modern concepts of health recognize health as more than the absence of disease, implying a maximum capacity of the individual for self-realization and self-fulfillment (Svalastog et al., 2017). The health of individuals is also linked to the environment in which they live and especially to their ability to adapt and integrate into their life context. I believe that this is a more universal definition of health because it uses an approach that can be individualized. Health is a resource to support an individual?s function and provides the means to lead a full life with meaning and purpose. Health is also a positive concept that emphasizes social and personal resources, as well as physical capabilities.References?Svalastog, A. L., Donev, D., Jahren Kristoffersen, N., & Gajović, S. (2017). Concepts and definitions of health and health-related values in the knowledge landscapes of the digital society.?Croatian Medical Journal,?58(6), 431?435. UnreadUnread3 ViewsViews 3 2 2 RepliesReplies 2 View profile card for Francesca Provencher Last post?September 19 at 8:09 PM?by Francesca Provencher McCartney, G., Popham, F., McMaster, R., & Cumbers, A. (2019). Defining health and health inequalities.?Public Health,?172(172), 22?30. Module 3 Discussion ? Jahenein NagelSubscribe Jahenein Nagel posted Sep 13, 2021 4:24 PM Contains unread posts For many years the definition of health has remained unchanged as a narrow concept, encompassing physical wellbeing from a medical context (Oleribe et al., 2018).?The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as a ?state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity??(Fallon & Karlawish, 2019, p. 1104). To some, ?health is wealth? -given that in the absence of good health, an individual or society cannot attain its full potential (Oleribe et al., 2019).By adopting the social constructionism point of view, one can understand that health is not simply present in nature, waiting to be discovered by scientists, but rather is continuously created by individuals and groups who interact among themselves in different social contexts (Leonardi, 2018, p. 739). This implies that health cannot have a unique definition in isolation; instead, health embodies as many definitions as there are people who use it (Leonardi, 2018, p. 739). When considering the various definitions of health, this is the definition that I agree with. When health is perceived through this?perspective, it is a never-ending system of events, within which an observer may select some of these events and construct a theoretical configuration of health, depending on its own theories, knowledge purposes, and operational targets: no one of these can be absolutely better than another, because each definition may only be more or less useful for pursuing specific knowledge and operational targets in the different scopes of application (Leonardi, 2018, p. 739).?To sum it up, health is subjective, fluid, and ever changing. In my opinion, health cannot be summed up in one restrictive definition.Fallon,?C.?K., & Karlawish,?J. (2019). Is the WHO definition of health aging well? Frameworks for ?health? after three score and ten.?American Journal of Public Health,?109(8), 1104-1106.?,?O.?O., Ukwedeh,?O., Burstow,?N.?J., Gomaa,?A.?I., Sonderup,?M.?W., Cook,?N., Waked,?I., Spearman,?W., & Taylor-Robinson,?S.?D. (2018, August 24).?Health: redefined. NCBI.? UnreadUnread14 ViewsViews 14 2 2 RepliesReplies 2 View profile card for Emilia Rodriguez Last post?September 18 at 10:43 PM?by Emilia Rodriguez Leonardi,?F. (2018). The definition of health: Towards new perspectives.?International Journal of Health Services,?48(4), 735-748.? References The definition of health has many implications for practice, policy, health services, and health promotion (Leonardi, 2018, 736). Furthermore, the definition affects health professionals, and in turn they strongly affect how health is socially constructed in modern societies (Leonardi, 2018, p. 736). Views of health have a strong impact on people?s health behaviors and this affects their ability to make appropriate health decisions (Leonardi, 2018, p, 736). To put it concisely, the definition of health is of paramount importance in all health fields. Discussion 3Subscribe Emilia Rodriguez posted Sep 15, 2021 3:12 PM Contains unread posts Definitions of Health????????????According to Farre and Rapley (2017), the medical model definition of health emphasizes the absence of disease. Consequently, health is defined as the presence of normal or high functioning of the body and the absence of infirmity or disease. The medical model emphasizes the integrity of the physiological, anatomical, and psychological integrity of the body.????????????According to?Svalastog et al. (2017),?the holistic model was championed by World Health Organization in 1947. The holistic model defines health as a state of complete mental, physical and social wellbeing and not just the absence of an illness or infirmity (Svalastog et al., 2017). The holistic model positively promoted the view of health, unlike the medical model. According to Svalastog et al. (2017), the holistic model had been viewed as having unmeasurable aspects and generally considered vague especially with the terms such as wellbeing. However, the holistic model can sum population or individual-based indicators of wellbeing to define health.????????????According to Dalh et al. (2018), the wellness model of health definition was championed by World Health Organization as an imitative of health promotion. The wellness model presents health in a dynamic perspective emphasizing health as a process or a force. The wellness model defines health as the extent to which a group or individual?s ability to satisfy their needs, realize their aspiration and the environmental coping capability; health is a resource for day to day living, as well as social and personal wellbeing.????????????I agree with the wellness model definition of health. The wellness model, unlike the other definitions, views health as a process of living rather than a state of wellbeing. Consequently, the wellness model emphasizes health promotion since the current health status is largely a sum of our past living conditions and lifestyle choices.Dahl, A. J., Peltier, J. W., & Milne, G. R. (2018). Development of a value co?creation wellness model: The role of physicians and digital information seeking on health behaviors and health outcomes.?Journal of Consumer Affairs,?52(3), 562-594., A. L., Donev, D., Kristoffersen, N. J., & Gajović, S. (2017). Concepts and definitions of health and health-related values in the knowledge landscapes of the digital society.?Croatian Medical Journal,?58(6), 431. UnreadUnread1 ViewsViews 1 1 1 RepliesReplies 1 View profile card for Kadijatu Sesay Last post?September 18 at 6:33 PM?by Kadijatu Sesay Farre, A., & Rapley, T. (2017, December). The new old (and old new) medical model: Four decades navigating the biomedical and psychosocial understandings of health and illness. In?Healthcare?(Vol. 5, No. 4, p. 88). Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. References The Definition I Agree With The Wellness Model The Holistic Model The Medical Model Francesca Provencher- Module 3Subscribe Francesca Provencher posted Sep 13, 2021 8:16 PM Contains unread posts ????????? Throughout the reading its it obvious that there are many different definitions for the word health. One definition stated by the World Health Organization (WHO) states health is a ?state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity? (Leonardi, 2018, p. 735). Another definition of health found in the literature includes,?having an absence of diseases or illnesses and defined by physical limitations (Leonardi, 2018).?I agree with the WHO definition of health. It is important that we not only look at the physical ailments that an individuals may have but make mental and social ailments equally as important.?Leonardi F. (2018). The Definition of Health: Towards New Perspectives.?International journal of health services : planning, administration, evaluation,?48(4), 735?748.? UnreadUnread1 ViewsViews 1 1 1 RepliesReplies 1 View profile card for Jeffrey Mahoney Last post?September 18 at 11:56 AM?by Jeffrey Mahoney Bradley, K., Goetz, T., & Viswanathan, S. (2018). Toward a Contemporary Definition of Health.?Military medicine,?183(suppl_3), 204?207.? Being a mental health nurse and a future mental health nurse practitioner, I see how important mental health is. There are a variety of mental illnesses that if go untreated can cause physical ailments as well. The literature states, the new definition of health transforms the word from requiring the absence of disease to a state where a person has a full life. Health is not a fixed state of being, but a dynamic quality of living where body, mind, and spirit are utilized to make the most of each day (Bradley et al., 2018). I believe it is important to not only be in a disease free state but to feel that way too and have the capabilities of living a full life. Module ??Subscribe James Neal posted Sep 15, 2021 2:14 AM Contains unread posts There are significant differences in how health is defined in various cultures, and being cognizant of these differences can play a major role in determining how successful we?ll be both in meeting the goals of our patients, as well as their clinical outcomes.?These types of examples are numerous. In a similar study, those from Asian cultures were much more dissatisfied with Western medical care they received because they ultimately attributed the cause of their initial illness to more supernatural occurrences (Armstrong & Swartzman, 1999). Even within ostensibly the same culture, there are variations in how individuals view health. As an example, some people view having their terminally ill, elderly relative as anything less than full code status to be an affront, whereas others resent that their relative is in the hospital receiving any treatment at all, believing that being at home and in nature is more healthful than the hospital environment. This should remind us, again, that we must be cautious about generalizing people?s health beliefs with those held by the culture we perceive them to be in.?Armstrong, T. L., & Swartzman, L. C. (1999). Asian versus western differences in satisfaction with western medical care: The mediational effects of illness attributions.?Psychology & Health,?14(3), 403?416.? UnreadUnread3 ViewsViews 3 1 1 RepliesReplies 1 View profile card for Jahenein Nagel Last post?September 18 at 10:39 AM?by Jahenein Nagel Levesque, A., & Li, H. Z. (2014). The relationship between culture, health conceptions, and health practices.?Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology,?45(4), 628?645.? References As a simple example of this principle, a study in health perception differences in Canada between those with French, English, or First Nation backgrounds found notable differences in how each group viewed health. While those from a European background were more similar, First Nation individuals were more likely to view health as extending beyond the scope of the individual and into the broader family and community (Levesque & Li, 2014). Perhaps without coincidence, First Nation individuals weighted traditional cultural remedies much more highly than other groups in the study (Levesque & Li, 2014). Notably, they did not consider an absence of pain in their definition of health, whereas most other cultures do (Levesque & Li, 2014). Week 3 LauraSubscribe Laura Riccardi posted Sep 13, 2021 6:44 PM Contains unread posts The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as a complete state of physical, mental, and social well-being (Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization, 1948). A contemporary definition of health could reach beyond this paradigm to recognize that we are all, to some extent, less than perfect, that we each have aspects that need care, and that we all are in some way infirm or even ?diseased? (Bradley et al., 2018).? This modern definition is focussing not on disease but on a feeling of fullness in your life. I have to agree with the contemporary definition as if you don?t have complete well-being and fullness, a person may have an incomplete, lacking mental state. This could alternatively affect your health in the basic terms as mentioned by the WHO. Social support and interaction is an important part of feeling complete. As evidenced with the COVID pandemic, isolation led people to feel scared, nervous, and unsure regarding their future. This affected all cultures all over the world. One study found that the country of Scotland was locked down for 66 days and people were only allowed to leave to go to work (Ingram et al., 2021). The people in Scotland who lacked interpersonal contact led to cognitive decline and higher levels of negative moods(Ingram et al., 2021).?Bradley, K. L., Goetz, T., & Viswanathan, S. (2018). Toward a contemporary definition of health.?Military Medicine,?183(suppl_3), 204?207.? to the Constitution of the World Health Organization. (1948, April 7). WHO. Retrieved September 10, 2021, from? UnreadUnread1 ViewsViews 1 1 1 RepliesReplies 1 View profile card for Frances Hall Last post?September 17 at 11:25 AM?by Frances Hall Ingram, J., Hand, C. J., & Maciejewski, G. (2021). Social isolation during covid??19 lockdown impairs cognitive function.?Applied Cognitive Psychology.? References Romig- Module 3Subscribe Krista Romig posted Sep 13, 2021 5:19 PM Contains unread posts There are many different definitions for the term health and patients? may have different understanding and priorities when it comes to their health. It is important to reflect on what our personal definition of health is and to assess the patients? goals for their health. According to the World Health Organization health is ?a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease? (World Health Organization, n.d.). However, according to Merriam-Webster (n.d.), health is ?the condition of being well or free from disease?.ReferencesWorld Health Organization. (n.d.).?Constitution of the World Health Organization. World Health Organization.? UnreadUnread1 ViewsViews 1 1 1 RepliesReplies 1 View profile card for Jennifer Johnson Last post?September 16 at 7:40 PM?by Jennifer Johnson Merriam-Webster. (n.d.).?Health. Merriam-Webster.? I agree with the World Health Organization?s definition of health. I believe that health is based on more than just the absence of sickness. As a psychiatric nurse, I see many patients who are technically ?healthy? and are not doing well. I believe in holistic care for patients and agree that they need to be well mentally and socially as well as physically. Module 3Subscribe Emily Meeks posted Sep 14, 2021 4:47 PM Contains unread posts After reading a number of definitions for the term health, it is in my opinion that the definition presented by the World Health Organization is no longer applicable today, given the prevalence of chronic illnesses and disabilities. We have learned from this weeks? reading that the experience of being ill is determined by the patient. Health, to one individual, may not mean the same thing to another. Health is multidimensional, involving one?s physical, mental, and social sense of well-being, their ability to adapt and find balance. Definitions provided by Sartorius (2006)