Complexity Leadership Theory   2022 Latest Answers  

A complexity perspective provides a more realistic setting and context of the  

current organizational environment . Ever since Peter Drucker identifi ed the  

emergence of the knowledge worker (Drucker, 1967 ), the knowledge economy  

and consequent knowledge organization and the knowledge worker are increasingly dominating the organizational corporate landscape. More organizations  

are relying on intellectual capital rather than manufacturing and primary extraction activities. Organizations create value to their stakeholders. These organizations of the twenty-fi rst century deeply embrace innovation, knowledge,  

technology, learning, and adaptation as core competences. In addition, they  

have to constantly adapt to environmental changes through innovation and continuous learning. Adaptation and change are not a matter of choice but a means  

of survival in an increasingly complex world in which we live. Kahane ( 2004 )  

identifi ed three complexities that are at the root of the toughest problems leaders  

face today. They are (1) dynamic complexity: cause and effect distant in time  

and space, (2) social complexity: diverse stakeholders with different agendas  

and worldviews, and (3) generative complexity: emergent realities wherein  

solutions from the past no longer fi t (p. 4). The implication is that the framework and assumptions in traditional leadership theories and perspectives on  

leadership vision are insuffi cient in guiding the knowledge economy .  

A realistic view of current leadership demands and the contextual environment must incorporate the complexities involved in developing an effective  

vision. A complexity leadership perspective is suited for this purpose . From a  

complexity leadership theory (CLT) perspective, leadership is conceived as a  

complex interactive dynamic from which adaptive outcomes such as learning,  

innovation, and adaptability emerge (Uhl-Bien, Marion, & McKelvey, 2007 ).