Introduction As the dynamics of our world are continually changing and becoming more multicultural, healthcare providers are facing a challenge in providing cultural competent care to this multicultural population. Dr. Madeleine M. Leininger was the first to use the term ?transcultural nursing? (TCN) in describing the blending of anthropology and nursing into a specialization in nursing. Anthropology is the scientific study of humans, past and present. Building on the physical, biological, social sciences and humanities, anthropologists use this knowledge to find solutions to human problems.

 Using the combined studies of nursing and anthropology, Dr. Leininger established TCN as a theory and evidence-based formal area of study and practice within nursing that focuses on people?s culturally based beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, and practices related to health, illness, healing and human caring (Leininger, 1991, 1995). Learning objectives for the module: Upon completion of the module, students will be able to: Define transcultural nursing. Discuss the contributions of transcultural theories to the advancement of transcultural study and practice. Explore the national standards for culturally and linguistically appropriate services in healthcare. Compare individual advanced practice cultural competence and organizational cultural competence. Readings: Andrews & Boyle, J. Chapters 1,2 Websites: The Model of Cultural Competence Through an Evolutionary Concept Analysis:? Communication Between Cultures:? 

Topic 1: Theories of Transcultural Nursing For over 50 years nurses have recognized the necessity to provide culturally specific care to a population that is increasingly becoming more racially and culturally diverse. Based on the knowledge that various races and cultures have different needs and requirements the need to develop culturally competent nursing care continues. In order to provide nurses with the foundations to be knowledgeable about the various cultures being seen in their practices transcultural models have been developed. Perhaps the most notable theorist, Dr.Madeline Leininger has provided the basic foundation for cultural competency in nursing practice. Other models by Purnell, and Giger and Davidhizer are also commonly used nursing cultural models. Using any of these models allows nurses at all levels to gain knowledge and provide culturally competent care. Having a greater nursing knowledge of the culturally diverse needs of our patients is vital in improving the quality of healthcare. ? Topic 2: Culturally Competent Nursing Care In order for the nurse to begin the process of becoming a culturally competent provider, one must start with cultural self-assessment. Evaluation of their own unconscious biases, cultural stereotypes, prejudices, and tendencies to discriminate against those different than themselves will give them valuable insight. With increased study and education, these unconscious tendencies can be resolved. To aid in the educational process, the American Academy of Nursing (AAN) Expert Panel on Global Nursing and Health and Transcultural Nursing Society have developed guidelines for the practice of culturally competent nursing care. 

These include knowledge of cultures, education and training in culturally competent care, clinical reelection. Cross-cultural communication, culturally competent practice, cultural competence in health care systems and organizations, patient advocacy and empowerment, multicultural workforce, cross-cultural leadership, evidence-based practice and research. As universally accepted guidelines nurses worldwide have a framework for providing culturally competent care. A five step problem solving process is provide to assist nurses in delivering culturally competent care. This five step process consists of a constructively critical self-assessment mutual goal setting with the client and other members of the health care team development of a plan of care implementation of the care plan evaluation of the plan. Discuss It ? ? Module 2 Discussion The culture of the deaf and hearing impaired is often overlooked because it is characterized as a nonethnic culture.? What cultural characteristics do deaf people have in common with other cultural groups? If your client is both deaf and identifies with another cultural group as well, how does this affect your ability to provide quality cultural care? Post your initial response by Wednesday at midnight

. Respond to one student by Sunday at midnight.? Both responses should be a minimum of 150 words, scholarly written, APA formatted, and referenced. ?A minimum of 2 references are required (other than your text) for both posts. ?Refer to the Grading Rubric for Online Discussion in the Course Resource section. Module 2: Discussion Special Guidance on APA formatting in Discussion Posts APA formatting is required in discussion posts with the following two exceptions (due to limitations with the text editor in LIVE): ?double line space and indent 1/2 inch from the left margin. Discussion posts will NOT be evaluated on those two formatting requirements.?All other APA formatting guidelines should be followed. For example,?in-text citations must be formatted with the appropriate information and in the correct sequence (Author, year), reference list entries must include all appropriate information following ?guidelines for capitalization, italics, and be in the correct sequence. Refer to the APA Publication Manual 7th ed. for each source type?s specific requirements. Please let your instructor know if you have any questions. ? Module 2: Discussion ? Must post first. Subscribe The culture of the deaf and hard of hearing is often overlooked because it is characterized as a nonethnic culture.? What cultural characteristics do deaf people have in common with other cultural groups? If your client is both deaf and identifies with another cultural group as well, how does this affect your ability to provide quality cultural care? Post your initial response by Wednesday at midnight.

 Respond to one student by Sunday at midnight.? Both responses should be a minimum of 150 words, scholarly written, APA formatted, and referenced. ?A minimum of 2 references are required (other than your text) for both posts. ?Refer to the Grading Rubric for Online Discussion in the Course Resource section. Feedback 100 / 100 Understanding the nuances of the patients culture as well as understanding the communication techniques for the Deaf culture is vital for providing competent care and a responsibility of the health care provider.? Collaboration within our healthcare community may be key! Well done! less View Graded Rubric Start a New Thread Discussion Filter by: All Threads Sort by: Most Recent Activity? Least Recent Activity? Newest Thread? Oldest Thread? Author First Name A-Z? Author First Name Z-A? Author Last Name A-Z? Author Last Name Z-A? Subject A-Z? Subject Z-A Module 2 DiscussionSubscribe Jerrica Goins posted Sep 8, 2021 9:18 PM Contains unread posts Individuals who are involved in or affiliated with the Deaf culture do not view deaf or the use of signed language as a disability. Diversity within the Deaf community must be considered and awareness of factors such as racial background, hearing status, and communication mode fall under the broader identity of being deaf. Understanding Deaf culture and learning about ASL are essential to building rapport and strengthening the therapeutic alliance (Boness, 2016). However, not all Deaf persons identify within this community. When a client identifies with another cultural group it is imperative to have a basic understanding of the culture they identify with. View the patient as an individual and find out their cultural preferences. The approach to them receiving care and treatment may need to be altered, to provide culturally competent care. For instance, there may be a patient who is deaf and is a member of the LGBTQ community. 

The provider needs to understand the population?s history, unique health concerns, risks, and develop communication skills that avoid discrimination, and provide compassionate care. Health professionals should be aware that the LGBTQ population experiences higher rates of challenges due to discrimination, social pressures, sexual behaviors, and less healthcare access (Bass & Nagy, 2020).Bass, B., & Nagy, H. (2020).?Cultural Competence in the Care of LGBTQ Patients. PubMed; StatPearls Publishing. UnreadUnread2 ViewsViews 2 1 1 RepliesReplies 1 View profile card for Kadijatu Sesay Last post?September 12 at 9:30 PM?by Kadijatu Sesay Boness, C. L. (2016). Treatment of Deaf Clients: Ethical Considerations for Professionals in Psychology.?Ethics & Behavior,?26(7), 562?585. References Module 2 DP ? H. StetsonSubscribe Heather Stetson posted Sep 6, 2021 6:26 PM Contains unread posts Historically, those afflicted with deafness or hard of hearing have been labeled as persons suffering from a disability

 However, labeling an individual with a disability indicates there is an issue with deafness or being hard of hearing that needs to be ?fixed? (Mauldin & Fannon, 2021). Many people who are deaf or hard of hearing do not feel as if they are disabled, but rather as individuals with their own unique cultural identity (Higgins, 2016). Characteristics the deaf and hard of hearing people have with other cultures include a common communication style (language/dialect), identity, and a shared heritage (Andrews et al., 2020). According to Mauldin and Fannon (2021), ?People who are deaf and use ASL to communicate belong to a linguistic minority group in the United States and have historically identified as capital-D Deaf; the convention has largely been to use lower case deaf to describe an audiological status and a capital-D to denote cultural membership in a signing community? (p.4). If the client is both deaf and also identifies with another cultural group this added layer simply means the practitioner will need to be that much more vigilant in providing culturally competent care. The five steps for providing culturally competent and congruent care include self-assessment, mutual goal setting, care planning, implementation of care plan, and evaluation of care (Andrews et al., 2020).??less1 UnreadUnread2 ViewsViews 2 1 1 RepliesReplies 

1 View profile card for Idida Aleman Musial Last post?September 12 at 8:08 PM?by Idida Aleman Musial Mauldin, L., & Fannon, T. (2021). They told me my name: Developing a deaf identity.?Symbolic Interaction, 44(2), 339-366.? Higgins, M., & Lieberman, A. M. (2016). Deaf students as a linguistic and cultural minority: Shifting perspectives and implications for teaching and learning.?Journal of Education (Boston, Mass.), 196(1), 9-18.? Andrews, M., Boyle, J. & Collins, J. (2020).?Transcultural concepts in nursing care?(8th ed.). Wolters Kluwer. Kadijatu SesaySubscribe Kadijatu Sesay posted Sep 8, 2021 10:50 PM Contains unread posts Deaf and hearing-impaired people face multi challenges that evolve around isolation, neglect, and deprivation of essential social services that affect their welfare and survival. They are often isolated in the community because they are presumed different from everyone else, (Mugeere et al., 2016). In every culture, one will find people who are deaf or hearing impaired. The cultural characteristic deaf people have in common with other cultural groups is that many deaf people are born to hearing parents. More so, deaf or hearing impaired can be found in any culture regardless of race, ethnicity, social-economic status, or education. Deaf people maintain intimate relationships using facial expressions, touch, sign language, eye contact which are like other cultural groups, (Mugeere et al., 2016).?ReferencesMugeere, A., Atekyereza, P. R., Kirumira, E. K., & Hojer, S. (2016, May 26).?Deaf identities in a multicultural setting: 

The Ugandan context. African journal of disability.? UnreadUnread5 ViewsViews 5 1 1 RepliesReplies 1 View profile card for Jerrica Goins Last post?September 12 at 8:05 PM?by Jerrica Goins Marschark, M., Zettler, I., & Dammeyer, J. (2017, July 1).?Social dominance orientation, language orientation, and deaf identity. Journal of deaf studies and deaf education.? If my client is both deaf and identifies with another cultural group, this will affect my ability to provide quality care in the sense that it might be difficult to communicate or provide an interpreter in the new culture since different cultures have different variations in their mode of communication and identity expression, (Marschark et al., 2017). Module 2: DiscussionSubscribed Gisselle Mustiga posted Sep 6, 2021 12:29 AM Contains unread posts The topic of whether deafness should be viewed as a culture or not is of debate. Deafness has always been seen as a physical impairment that is associated with cognitive and blindness disabilities. Recently, views of deafness as a culture have been raised, considering the condition as a trait and not disability. This is because deafness does not need to be corrected; it is not a pathology (Chovaz, 2016). The deaf and the hearing cultures have various common factors which influence communication with each other. One of them is that deaf people go to churches and attend school for the deaf, just like hearing people who also go to school and attend churches to attain education and religious purposes (Giger & Haddad, 2020). Moreover, both hearing and deaf people use the English language; the only difference is how they communicate it.?ReferencesChovaz, C. J. (2016).

 The Differences in our similarities.?The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 16(3). 416.? UnreadUnread5 ViewsViews 5 1 2 RepliesReplies 2 View profile card for Emilia Rodriguez Last post?September 12 at 4:17 PM?by Emilia Rodriguez Giger, J. N., & Haddad, L. (2020). Transcultural nursing-e-book: Assessment and Intervention. Elsevier Health Sciences. Andrews, M., Boyle, J., & Collins, J.W. (2020).?Transcultural concepts in nursing care?(8th ed.). Wolters Kluwer If my client is deaf and identifies themselves with a particular cultural group, this will significantly influence how I will give quality and holistic care. This is because all cultural preferences of the patients must be respected while providing care. Providing quality care to clients that are deaf raises essential ethical consideration in relation to competency, assessment, confidentiality, evaluation, and diagnosis (Andrews et al., 2020). The nurse must therefore consider the relevant ethic codes that are required in providing treatment that is ethical. This is because the nurse is responsible for ensuring that the patient or client is comfortable and satisfied with healthcare services. Thus, all healthcare services providers must maintain a professional relationship with the client while also offering care in line with their culture and beliefs (Andrews et al., 2020)

. Module 2Subscribe Julie Robichaud posted Sep 8, 2021 7:48 AM Contains unread posts ? ? ? ? ? The deaf and hearing impaired are considered a nonethnic culture, but can be linked to another culture and become a double minority such as a Russian patient who is also deaf (Andrews et al., 2020). Deaf patients have many of the same characteristics as other cultural groups which include, decreased comprehension due to a language barrier, decreased psychosocial well-being due to difficulty with social and interpersonal skills, economic dependence due to perceived disability, and decreased quality of life due to unnecessary limitations sometimes placed by healthcare providers (Andrews et al., 2020). Caring for a patient that is deaf or hearing impaired and also identifies with another cultural group, may require more help or interventions. All cultures, ethnic and nonethnic, have different needs that have to be taken into consideration. Cultural respect combines a body of knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors that are specific to ethnic, nonethnic, racial, religious, geographic, and social groups (NIH, 2017). Cultural respect ensures reduction in health disparities and improves access to quality and safe healthcare that is respectful and responsive to culturally diverse patients (NIH, 2017).?Andrews, M.M., Boyle, J.S. & Collins, J.W. (2020).?Transcultural concepts in nursing care?(8th ed.). Wolters KluwerNational Institutes of Health. (2017, February 15).?Cultural respect.? UnreadUnread3 ViewsViews 3 2 2 RepliesReplies

 2 View profile card for Laura Riccardi Last post?September 11 at 1:07 PM?by Laura Riccardi Ohta, G. (2015). National standards for culturally and linguistically appropriate services (CLAS) in health and health care.?Hawaii Journal of Medicine and Public Health, 74(7),?p.12. Barksdale, C.L., Rodick, W.H., Hopson, R., Kenyon, J., Green, K. & Jacobs, C.G. (2016). Literature review of the National CLAS Standards: Policy and practical implications in reducing health disparities. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 4(4).? ? ? ? ? ? The National CLAS Standards can be used to provide quality cultured care for patients with one diverse culture or those who belong to more than one cultural group. It is a great tool to improve cultural respect, competence, and healthcare service. The fifteen standards address governance, leadership, and workforce; communication and language assistance; and engagement, continuous improvement, and accountability (Ohta, 2015). There can be gaps in knowledge and communication between a provider and a patient who share the same race or ethnicity, which suggests that there is a need for a standard of care for appropriate cultural and linguistic competency training at least annually for all healthcare providers (Barksdale et al., 2016). This would improve culture competency, health services, and patient satisfaction. Discussion 2Subscribe Emilia Rodriguez posted Sep 8, 2021 11:19 PM Contains unread posts Deaf CultureNotably, deaf individuals typically identify with different cultures and cultural groups in addition to deaf culture. This is best exemplified by the case of deaf individuals with ethnic or racial minority backgrounds. 

Such intersections are consequential for the healthcare providers? delivery of culturally competent care because of two principal reasons (Hill et al., 2020). Firstly, the overlap necessitates broadened comprehension of the sociocultural determinants of effective care delivery, given that such understanding must encompass both the sociocultural determinants of deafness and of the additional cultural dimensions and characteristics. For example, the provider must comprehend both the sociocultural aspects of deafness and of the Hispanic culture in the context of healthcare delivery when interacting with a deaf service user who also identifies with the Hispanic ethnic culture. Additionally, the overlap affects the ability to provide quality cultural care because it expands the domains of context-specific cultural competencies requisite for the effective case management.Englerth, K., Dennis, C., & Scott, S. (2020). Looking for the signs: OTs? experiences with deaf culture.?American Journal of Occupational Therapy,?74(4_Supplement_1), 7411510311p1-7411510311p1.?, I. W., Andrews, J. F., Harris, R. L., & Ávila, T. G. (2020).?Deaf culture: Exploring deaf communities in the United States. Plural Publishing.less1 UnreadUnread1 ViewsViews 1 1 1 RepliesReplies 

1 View profile card for Jeffrey Mahoney Last post?September 11 at 12:53 PM?by Jeffrey Mahoney Hill, C., Deville, C., Alcorn, S., Kiess, A., Viswanathan, A., & Page, B. (2020). Assessing and providing culturally competent care in radiation oncology for deaf cancer patients.?Advances in radiation oncology,?5(3), 333?344.? References Deaf culture refers the set of values, social beliefs, shared community institutions, literary traditions, art, and other cultural aspects that both influence deafness and also utilize sign language as the primary mode of communication. While deaf culture is characterized by unique and distinctive components it also has several cultural characteristics in common with other cultural groups including hearing culture and other ethnic and non-ethnic cultures (Englerth et?al., 2020). Three areas of similarity, in this regard, include the feeling of community, behavioral norms, and social structure. Regarding social structure, deaf culture like all ethnic cultural groups is for instance characterized by the existence of a leadership structure that is felt to embody the unique characteristics of the entire group (Leigh et al., 2020). Self-recognition and recognition by others is also a central feature of the feeling of community within deaf culture as it is in other cultural groups (Hill et al., 2020). Behavioral norms governing different aspects of life such as decision-making and consensus-building also characterize deaf culture as they do all other cultural groups. 

Module 2Subscribe Frances Hall posted Sep 8, 2021 8:26 AM Contains unread posts Hearing loss is a major source of disability in adults, associated with serious communication and psychosocial problems and high health care costs, with economic implications at the societal and individual levels (Cunningham & Tucci, 2017). On a global level, hearing loss is the most prevalent disabling condition; however, lack of trained hearing health professionals and limited access to assistive technology restricts access to hearing health-care services (Ingram et al., 2016). The primary effect of adult hearing loss is impaired communication, which can adversely affect relationships with family and friends and create difficulties in the workplace. Untreated hearing loss in adults also has indirect health, psychosocial, and economic effects and leads to social isolation and a reduced quality of life (Cunningham & Tucci, 2017). I would think the inability to communicate weather it?s talking or speaking another language, and not having the ability to be understood correctly is something all cultural groups have in common. People with hearing loss described various negative emotions in response to hearing loss, including depression, sadness, desperation, frustration, shame, and embarrassment.

 These feelings were largely related to others? reactions to their inability to hear (Ingram et al., 2016).?ReferencesCunningham, L. L., & Tucci, D. L. (2017). Hearing loss in adults.?New England Journal of Medicine,?377(25), 2465?2473.? UnreadUnread5 ViewsViews 5 1 1 RepliesReplies 1 View profile card for Francesca Provencher Last post?September 11 at 12:31 PM?by Francesca Provencher Ingram, M., Marrone, N., Sanchez, D., Sander, A., Navarro, C., de Zapien, J., Colina, S., & Harris, F. (2016). Addressing hearing health care disparities among older adults in a us-mexico border community.?Frontiers in Public Health,?4.? Brooks, L. A., Manias, E., & Bloomer, M. J. (2019). Culturally sensitive communication in healthcare: A concept analysis.?Collegian,?26(3), 383?391.? ?


Three major uses of culturally sensitive communication were identified, including understanding one?s own culture, open and sensitive communication, and strategies to collaborate with the patient and family for optimal patient care (Brooks et al., 2019). Knowing that most of the stress of being deaf are the reactions people have toward them not being able to hear makes it so important for us as practitioners to be aware of this to provide compassionate care. Module 2:DiscussionSubscribe Idida Aleman Musial posted Sep 8, 2021 9:00 PM Contains unread posts ?The Transcultural Interprofessional Practice (TIP) model by Andrews/Boyle is comprised five essential components in nursing care (Andrews & Boyle, 2019). Performing a self-assessment, collaborative goal setting with the family and the patient, developing, implementing and evaluating a plan of care are the five essential components of competent and culturally congruent nursing care. Implementing these aspects into clinical practice will improve the current nursing care culture

. TIP promotes cultural congruent nursing care that is affordable, accessible, and based on evidence-based practice.??????more2 UnreadUnread3 ViewsViews 3 2 2 RepliesReplies 2 View profile card for Donna Wrobel Last post?September 10 at 6:35 PM?by Donna Wrobel Young, J., Jerolimov, D., & Ofner, S. (2021). Promoting nursing students? transcultural self?efficacy to care for burmese refugees using a set of educational strategies.?Nursing Forum (Hillsdale),?56(2), 460-466.? Wehbe-Alamah, H., McFarland, M., Andrews, M., & Lograsso, S. (2021;2019;). An ethnohistory of the transcultural nursing scholars and their contributions to the field.?Journal of Transcultural Nursing,?32(1), 50-58.? Andrews, M. M., & Boyle, J. S. (2019). The Andrews/Boyle transcultural interprofessional practice (TIP) model.?Journal of Transcultural Nursing,?30(4), 323-330.? Andrews, M., Boyle, J., & Collins, J.W. (2020). Transcultural concepts in nursing care (p.47, 8th ed.). Wolters Kluwer Reference: Providing care to individuals with special needs can be challenging for nurses, especially when one is not prepared. According to Andrews and Boyle, a deaf individual might self-identify with nonethnic cultures. Communication becomes a challenge when providing care to an individual that also comes from a subculture (Wehbe-Alamah, et al. 2021;2019). In order to be prepared for these types of challenges, preparation should start in nursing school. Nursing instructors and nurses can also promote culturally congruent care for deaf patients by teaching nursing students the importance of competent care for all individuals. Therefore, nursing students will benefit from knowledge on transcultural care for individuals of different backgrounds (Young, et al. 2020). Impaired communication places clients with special needs at a higher risk for health disparities and inequities. 

The inability to communicate needs to the healthcare provider can become a barrier. This is a one common element that a deaf, or hard of hearing, individual has in common with members of other cultural groups. Module 2 ? Francesca ProvencherSubscribe Francesca Provencher posted Sep 8, 2021 6:26 PM Contains unread posts ????????? Taking care of a deaf patient has similarities to taking care of a patient from a different culture. It is important that when taking care of a patient that cannot hear their healthcare providers have appropriate resources to communicate with them. Clear communication can be one of the most crucial tools when it comes to diagnosing, treating, and educating a patient. The literature states, communication barriers between healthcare providers and?patients?contribute to health disparities which is particularly true concerning communication between providers and?deaf?patients. This is caused due to lack of understanding of cultural and linguistic differences, ineffectiveness of various means of communication and level of health literacy within that population (Hommes et al., 2018).?Sirch, L., Salvador, L., & Palese, A. (2017).

 Communication difficulties experienced by deaf male patients during their in-hospital stay: findings from a qualitative descriptive study.?Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences,?31(2), 368?377.? UnreadUnread7 ViewsViews 7 2 2 RepliesReplies 2 View profile card for James Neal Last post?September 10 at 6:19 PM?by James Neal Hommes, R. E., Borash, A. I., Hartwig, K., & Degracia, D. (2018). American Sign Language Interpreters Perceptions of Barriers to Healthcare Communication in Deaf and Hard of Hearing Patients.?Journal of Community Health,?43(5), 956?961.? ????????? The research shows communicating strategies, include, sign language and oralism which have always been the two main methods of approach to language for deaf people (Sirch et al., 2017). Sign language is the normal form of communication for a deaf person and articulates the awareness and familiarities of their culture. According to the author ?sign language is self-contained and has its own syntax, grammar, and semantics, which are different from spoken and written languages? (Sirch et al., 2017, p. 368). On our unit we utilize a variety of different tools to communicate with deaf patients, this includes interpreters that use American Sign Language (ASL) that come in person to the hospital along with an iPad that we can type ASL in and an interpreter comes on the screen. A deaf patient may also be proficient in lip reading so a provider would always have to make sure they were patient facing when providing information. Module 2 Discussion ? Jahenein Nagel Subscribe Jahenein Nagel posted Sep 6, 2021 6:58 PM Discrimination and prejudice remain uncomfortably common in the world. 

These attitudes are most obviously encountered between majority and minority groups with regard to religion, gender, race, ethnicity, and disability (Marschark et al., 2017). Prejudice and discrimination often involve one (majority) group seeking social dominance over another (minority) group (Marschark et al., 2017)?????????Clason (2019) asserts that practitioners must be aware of how factors such as racial background, hearing status, and communication mode fall under the broader identity of being Deaf. The?following guidelines are important tips to remember when communicating with the Deaf: (a) acknowledge the fact that your first attempts to communicate will feel awkward and uncomfortable; (b) it is acceptable to use paper and pen; (c) take the time to communicate and connect; (d) understand that deaf people listen with their eyes so only speak when you have eye contact, even if they are using an interpreter; (e) use the beginning and ending of a conversation as an opportunity to make physical and visual contact with the deaf person, especially if they have been using an interpreter during your conversation and make eye contact; (f)?Recognize that Deaf clients may benefit from a counseling approach that is visual, tactile, or expressive (Clason, 2019).Clason,?D. (2019, December 24).?The importance of deaf culture. Healthy Hearing.? UnreadUnread 7 ViewsViews 7 0 1 RepliesReplies 1 View profile card for Gisselle Mustiga Last post?September 10 at 6:19 PM?by Gisselle Mustiga Marschark,?M., Ettler,?I., & Dammeyer,?J. (2017, May 30).?Social dominance orientation, language orientation, and deaf identity. NCBI.? References Some Deaf individuals view themselves not as disabled, but as a member of a linguistic-cultural minority identified, most centrally, by their use of sign language (Marschark et al., 2017).?According to Marschark et al. (2017), Deaf cultural identity is not a function of hearing status alone, but includes internalization of values and beliefs with regard to affiliation with the deaf community, language modality, and social networks.?Deaf culture?is the set of social beliefs, behaviors, art, literary traditions, history, values, and shared institutions of communities that are influenced by?deafness?and which use?sign languages?as the main means of communication (Marschark et al., 2017). When used as a cultural label especially within the culture, the word?deaf?is often written with a capital?